Relationships between Molina’s hog nosed skunks, Conepatus chinga (Mammalia, Mephitidae) and human beings in the Chaupihuaranga river basin, Pasco, Peru

E. Daniel Cossios, Fernando Valdez Ridoutt, Andrea Luna Donoso

Resumen


Throughout the skunks' distribution range, several kinds of conflicts between these animals and human beings have been recorded. In Peru, although these issues seem to be common, records thereof have been merely anecdotal. Here we describe, for the first time, the relationships between people and skunks in a Peruvian area. The study was conducted in five villages of the Chaupihuaranga River basin, in Pasco department. Interviews were made to collect information about people's attitude toward Molina's hog-nosed skunks, the uses given to this animal, hunting methods and number of hunted skunks. Almost all interviewees (97.8%) considered skunks as harmful animals and the majority (87%) admitted hunting them. Skunks are mainly hunted to control the damage they cause to the crop fields, but they are also used as food, in traditional medicine and to make decorative elements. Two hunting modalities were reported: hunting following casual encounters and organized hunting by crop field keepers. The skunk skins are displayed at the homes of the hunting crew leaders, giving prestige to them. Genetic analyses performed on skin samples suggested stability or recent population growth. Both controlling skunk population to limit the damage they cause to the crop fields and using this species in traditional medicine seem to be ancestral activities. Although skunk hunting in the study area seems to be sustainable, we recommend conducting evaluations of skunk populations to verify whether hunting entails a risk factor for their conservation.

Palabras clave


Conepatus chinga, Peru, people and wildlife conflicts, skunks, traditional medicine.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Alves R.R.N., & Alves H.N. 2011. The faunal drugstore: Animal-based remedies used in traditional medecines in Latin America. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 7: 9.

Alves R.R.N., Feijó A., Duarte R.R., Silva W.M., Fernandes-Ferreira H., Cordeiro-Estrela P. & Langguth A. 2016. Game mammals of the caatinga biome. Ethnobiology and Conservation. 5:1-51.

Arriaga P.J. [1621]. 1920. Extirpación de idolatrías del Perú. Sanmartín, Lima, Perú.

Barbarán F.R. 2004. Usos mágicos, medicinales y rituales de la fauna en la Puna del Noroeste Argentino y Sur de Bolivia. Contribuciones al Manejo de la Vida Silvestre en Latinoamérica. 1: 1-26.

Castillo D.F., Lucherini M., Luengos Vidal E.M., Manfredi C. & Casanave E.B. 2011. Spatial organization of Molina's Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus chinga) in two landscapes of the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 89: 229-238.

Cerato M. & Andelt W.F. 2002. Coping with skunks. Cooperative Extension Bulletin. Colorado State University. Natural Resources Series 6. 500: 1-4.

Cofré H. & Marquet P.A. 1999. Conservation status, rarity, and geographic priorities for conservation of Chilean mammals: an assessment. Biological Conservation. 88: 53-68.

Deustua I., Williams M. & Vásquez P. 2008. Relationships between human settlers and highland carnivores in the district of Anco, Center-South Peru. Ecología Aplicada. 7: 43-48.

Dragoo J.W. 2009. Family Mephitidae (Skunks). In: Wilson D.E. & Mittermeier R. A. (editors). 2009. Handbook of the mammals of the world, vol 1: Carnivores, pp: 532-562. Lynx Editions, Barcelona.

Drummond A.J., Nicholls G.K., Rodrigo A.G. & Solomon W. 2002. Estimating mutation parameters, population history and genealogy simultaneously from temporally spaced sequence data. Genetics. 161: 1307-1320.

Drummond A.J., Rambaut A., Shapiro B. & Pybus O.G. 2005. Bayesian coalescent inference of past population dynamics from molecular sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22: 1185–1192.

Emmons L., Schiaffini M & Schipper J. 2016. Conepatus chinga. The IUCN Red List of Treatened Species 2016. eT41630A45210528. Consulted: November 26, 2018.

Enríquez P., Mariaca R., Retana O.G. & Naranjo E.J. 2006. Uso medicinal de la fauna silvestre en los altos de Chiapas, México. Interciencia. 31: 491-499.

Excoffier L. & Lsicher H.E. 2010. Arlequin suite ver. 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular Ecology Resources 10:564-567.

Fu Y.X. 1997. Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection. Genetics. 147: 915-925.

García-Flores A., Lozano-García M.A., Ortiz-Villaseñor A.L. & Monroy-Martinez R. 2014. Uso de mamíferos silvestres por habitantes del Parque Nacional El Tepozteco, Morelos, México. Etnobiología. 12: 57-67.

Guamán Poma de Ayala F. [1615]. 1993. Nueva crónica y buen gobierno. Edited by F. Pease. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Lima, Peru.

Hernandez J., Campos C.M. & Borghi C.E. 2015. Medicinal use of wild fauna by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve (San Juan, Argentina). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 11: 15.

Huntington H.P. 2000. Using traditional ecological knowledge in science: methods and applications. Ecological Applications. 10: 1270–1274.

IIAP (Instituto de Investigación de la Amazonía Peruana). 2006. Conservación in situ de la agrobiodiversidad andino-amazónica 2: Organizaciones tradicionales. IIAP, Perú.

Lucherini M. & Merino M.J. 2008. Perceptions of human-carnivore conflicts in the High Andes of Argentina. Mountain Research and Development. 28: 81-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1659/mrd.0903.

Luna de Oliveira W.S., Oliveira Luna M., Silva Souto W. & Nóbrega Alves R.R. 2017. Interactions between people and game animals in a Brazilian semi-arid area. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 16: 221-228.

Morales V. 2010. Visión y conocimiento etnozoológico andino de la fauna silvestre: Municipio de Inquisivi, Bolivia. 2010. AGRUCO, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Pacheco V., Cadenillas R., Salas E., Tello C. & Zeballos H. 2009. Diversidad y endemismo de los mamíferos del Perú. Revista Peruana de Biología. 16: 5-32.

Pacifici M., Santini L., DiMarco M., Baisero D., Francucci L., Grottolo G., Visconti P. & Rondinini C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation. 5: 87-94.

Rogers A.R. & Harpending H. 1992. Population growth makes waves in the distribution of pairwise genetic differences. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 9: 552–569.

Valdizán H. & Maldonado A. 1922. La medicina popular peruana. Torres Aguirre, Lima Peru.

Vásquez M.C. 1964. The Varayoc system in Vicos. Cornell University Press, New York, NY.

Zeballos H. & Carrera R.C. 2010. Mamíferos de la Reserva Nacional de Salinas y Aguada Blanca, Arequipa y Moquegua, suroeste del Perú. Páginas 249-259. En: H. Zeballos, J. A. Ochoa y E. López (editores). Diversidad Biológica de la Reserva Nacional de Salinas y Aguada Blanca. DESCO, PROFONANPE, SERNANP, Lima, Peru.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21704/rea.v17i2.1240

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


 width=

 La revista Ecología Aplicada de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina está licenciada bajo una Licencia Internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 4.0.                   

Revista Ecología Aplicada
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina 
Teléfonos (51-1)-614-7800 anexos 271 - 294 
E-mail: ecolapl@lamolina.edu.pe