Evaluación del riesgo ecológico de la barita (BASO4) empleando pruebas ecotoxicológicas con doce organismos

Christian Paredes, María Cristina Miglio

Resumen


Se desconoce el efecto de la barita en los ecosistemas acuáticos donde se realizan actividades hidrocarburíferas y que vienen incrementándose a nivel nacional. Por tal motivo, se evaluó el riesgo ecológico de la barita empleando la respuesta ecotoxicológica de doce organismos a fin de conocer los posibles efectos que este compuesto pudiera estar ocasionando a los organismos relacionados a los ecosistemas marinos y epicontinentales donde se desarrollan actividades hidrocarburíferas. Las pruebas ecotoxicológicas incluyeron a las microalgas Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella sp., las plantas terrestres Medicago sativa y Zea mays, los crustáceos Daphnia magna, Emerita analoga y Apohyale sp., al equinodermo Tetrapygus niger, al insecto acuático Chironomus calligraphus, y a los peces Odontesthes regia regia, Poecilia reticulata y Paracheirodon innesi. Las mediciones de los parámetros y protocolos para las pruebas como la determinación del riesgo ecológico siguieron las pautas y recomendaciones de la USEPA y otros autores. De los principales resultados ecotoxicológicos con barita y sus formas solubles, se obtuvo un efecto negativo de la barita sobre el crecimiento celular de la microalga epicontinental Chlorella sp. (96 h), que registró una concentración de inhibición media (CI50) de 0.1 g/l y una concentración efectiva no observable (CENO) de 0.02 g/l. Asimismo, se obtuvo un efecto negativo del bario sobre el crecimiento foliar de la planta terrestre monocotiledónea Z. mays (10 d) que registró una concentración efectiva media (CE50) de 0.0011 g/l y una CENO de 0.0002 g/l. Finalmente, se concluye que existe alto riesgo ecológico para la barita (CR = 1.224) y para sus formas solubles (CR = 37 500) con el método determinista; mientras que no existe riesgo ecológico para la barita (CR = 0.4), mientras que existe riesgo ecológico para sus formas solubles (CR = 122.95) con el método probabilístico, empleando la respuesta ecotoxicológica de doce organismos.

Palabras clave


CI50, CE50, CENO, pruebas ecotoxicológicas, riesgo ecológico, barita.

Texto completo:

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21704/rea.v17i1.1170

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