Distribution of stem-end rot on the canopy in ‘Hass’ avocado trees in two coastal areas in Peru


  • Alejandro Kepler Llanos Melo Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Facultad de Agronomía, Departamento Académico de Fitopatología https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6032-4141
  • Walter Eduardo Apaza-Tapia Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Facultad de Agronomía, Departamento Académico de Fitopatología https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7510-8866




Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stem-end rot, avocado, canopy, SER


Stem-end rot (SER) of avocado is caused by several fungal species, and it is presented worldwide. This plant disease currently affects several avocado producer regions in Peru, causing fruit rot, impacting the industry negatively. Research about SER distribution in the canopy of avocado trees is limited. Thus, the present study aimed to compare which areas in the canopy are prone to have more SER in ‘Hass’ avocado harvested fruit in two different coastal areas in Peru. The experiment was conducted in the northern (Barranca) and southern (Cañete) of Lima. ‘Hass’Avocado fruits from both producer areas were collected to identify the causal agent; Lasiodiplodia theobromae was isolated from infected fruits. Identification was conducted based on morphological features and a partial DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (tef1-α). The results showed that fruits inside the tree canopy were prone to have a higher disease incidence than the fruits located in the external site (P<0.001). Besides, internal-site fruits displayed a higher percentage of infected fruit for each grade disease (P<0.001) than external-site fruits, except for grade 0 (fruits without symptoms) and grade 1. Finally, the results suggested that the altitude where the fruit is positioned on the canopy could influence the incidence of SER, where fruits located in the high part revealed less incidence than the low section. The results are valuable for enhancing management strategies and avoiding postharvest loss of avocado fruits in our region.


Download data is not yet available.


Altendorf, S. (2019). Major tropical fruits market review. FAO, Ed. FAO, Rome. Italy, 1–10.

Altschup, S. F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E. W., & Lipman, D. J. (1990). Basic local alignment search tool. Journal of Molecular Biology, 215, 403–410. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2

Balogun, S., Hirano, Y., Teraoka, T., & Arie, T. (2008). PCR-based analysis of disease in tomato singly or mixed inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 1 and 2. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 47, 50–60. https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/5237

Barnett, L. H., & Hunter, B. B. (2006). Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. Fourth Edition. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Brown, G. E., & Miller, W. R. (1999). Maintaining fruit health after harvest. In: L. W. Timmer, L. W. Duncan (Eds.), Citrus Health Management (pp. 175–188). APS Press, St Paul.

Carbone, I., & Kohn, L. M. (1999). A method for designing primer sets for speciation studies in filamentous Ascomycetes. Mycologia, 91, 553–556. https://doi.org/10.2307/3761358

Centre De Cooperation International En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement. (2019). Country profile: Peru. Centre De Cooperation International En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement in collaboration with HAB, The Hass Avocado Board. https://hassavocadoboard.com/country-profiles-market-reviews/

Darvas, J. M., & Kotze, J. M. (1987). Avocado fruit diseases and their control in South Africa. In Proceedings of the First World,10, 117–119.

Diskin, S., Feygenberg, O., Maurer, D., Droby, S., Prusky, D., & Alkan, N. (2017). Microbiome alterations are correlated with occurrence of postharvest stem-end rot in mango fruit. Phytobiomes Journal, 1(3), 117–127. https://doi.org/10.1094/PBIOMES-05-17-0022-R

Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. (2020). FAOSTAT, Statistical Yearbook. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, FAO, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC

Galsurker, O., Diskin, S., Maurer, D., Feygenberg, O., & Alkan, N. (2018). Fruit stem-end rot. Horticulturae, 4(4), 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040050

Guarnaccia, V., Vitale, A., Cirvilleri, G., Aiello, D., Susca, A., Epifani, F., Perrone, G., & Polizzi, G. (2016). Characterisation and pathogenicity of fungal species associated with branch cankers and stem-end rot of avocado in Italy. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 146(4), 963–976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-016-0973-z

Johnson, G. I., Mead, A. J., Cooke, A. W., & Dean, J. R. (1992). Mango stem end rot pathogens-fruit infection by endophytic colonisation of the inflorescence and pedicel. Annals of Applied Biology, 120(2), 225–234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1992.tb03420.x

Khanzada, M. A., Lodhi, A. M., & Shahzad, S. (2004). Pathogenicity of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium solani on mango. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 36(1), 181–189.

Li, H.-Y., Cao, R.-B., & Mu, Y.-T. (1995). In vitro inhibition of Botryosphaeria dothidea and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and chemical control of gummosis disease of Japanese apricot and peach trees in Zhejiang Province, China. Crop Protection, 14 (3), 187–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(95)00011-A

Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego (2008). Estudio de palta en el Perú y el Mundo.

Madhupani, Y. D. S., & Adikaram, N. K. B. (2017). Delayed incidence of stem-end rot and enhanced defences in Aureobasidium pullulans-treated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 124(3), 227–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41348-017-0086-8

Menge, J. A., & Ploetz, R. C. (2003). Diseases of avocado. In R. C. Ploetz (Ed.). Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops (pp. 35–71). CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Munirah, M. S. (2017). Characterization of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae causing fruit rot on pre-harvest mango in Malaysia. Plant Pathology & Quarantine, 7(2), 202–213. https://doi.org/10.5943/ppq/7/2/14

Pereira, O. L., Dutra, D. C., & Dias, L. A. S. (2009). Lasiodiplodia theobromae is the causal agent of a damaging root and collar rot disease on the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 4(1), 120–123. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1071/DN09049

Punithalingam, E. (1976). Botryodiplodia theobromae. CMI Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria N° 519. Commonwealth Mycological, Wallingford, UK.

Punithalingam, E. (1980). Plant diseases attributed to Botryodiplodia theobromae. Commonwealth Mycological, Surrey, UK.

Saitoh, K. I., Togashi, K., Arie, T., & Teraoka, T. (2006). A simple method for a mini-preparation of fungal DNA. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 72(6), 348–350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10327-006-0300-1

Sivankalyani, V., Feygenberg, O., Diskin, S., Wright, B., & Alkan, N. (2016). Increased anthocyanin and flavonoids in mango fruit peel are associated with cold and pathogen resistance. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 111, 132–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2015.08.001

Tovar-Pedraza, J. M., Mora-Aguilera, J. A., Nava-Díaz, C., Téliz-Ortiz, D., Valdovinos-Ponce, G., Villegas-Monter, Á., & Hernández-Morales, J. (2012). Identification, pathogenicity, and histopathology of Lasiodiplodia theobromae on mamey sapote grafts in guerrero, Mexico. Agrociencia, 46, 147–161.

Twizeyimana, M., Förster, H., McDonald, V., Wang, D. H., Adaskaveg, J. E., & Eskalen, A. (2013). Identification and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens associated with stem-end rot of avocado in California. Plant Disease, 97(12), 1580–1584. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0230-RE

Úrbez-Torres, J. R., Leavitt, G. M., Guerrero, J. C., Guevara, J., & Gubler, W. D. (2008). Identification and pathogenicity of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Diplodia seriata, the causal agents of bot canker disease of Grapevines in Mexico. Plant Disease, 92(4), 519–529. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-92-4-0519

Úrbez-Torres, J. R., Leavitt, G. M., Voegel, T. M., & Gubler, W. D. (2006). Identification and distribution of Botryosphaeria spp. associated with grapevine cankers in California. Plant Disease, 90(12), 1490–1503. https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-90-1490

Voorhees, R. K. (1942). Life history and taxonomy of the fungus Physalospora rhodina. Florida Agric. Exp. Station Tech. Bull. 371.

Wanjiku, E. K., Waceke, J. W., Wanjala, B. W., & Mbaka, J. N. (2020). Identification and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens associated with Stem End Rots of avocado fruits in Kenya. International Journal of Microbiology, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4063697

Woolf, A.B., Wexler, A., Prusky, D., Kobiler, E., Lurie, S., (2000). Direct sunlight influences postharvest temperature responses and ripening of five avocado cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 125, 370–376. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.125.3.370

Xu, C., Zhang, H., Zhou, Z., Hu, T., Wang, S., Wang, Y., & Cao, K. (2015). Identification and distribution of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with blueberry stem blight in China. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 143(4), 737–752. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-015-0724-6

Zhang, J. (2014). Lasiodiplodia theobromae in Citrus Fruit (Diplodia Stem-End Rot). In S. Bautista (Ed.), Postharvest Decay: Control Strategies (pp. 309–331). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-411552-1.00010-7

Zhang, J., & Swingle, P. P. (2005). Effects of curing on green mold and stem-end rot of citrus fruit and its potential application under Florida packing system. Plant Disease, 89(8), 834–840. https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-89-0834




Most read articles by the same author(s)